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Geology is the doctrine of the Earth's structure and history.
Geology is a very comprehensive science, where the core is knowledge of
the rocks, minerals and melts that make up the earth, as well as the structure
and structure of the earth. Geology deals with both classification and
description of their properties, distribution of elements, minerals and rocks in
the earth's interior and not least knowledge of the processes behind
it. Furthermore, study of earlier organisms and the evolution of life are
central. Geology is not limited to Earth, but is also applied to other celestial
bodies, such as the Moon and Mars.
Geology has two main components:
- a descriptive component, which provides knowledge about minerals and
rocks and their properties and distribution
- a process-oriented component in which one seeks to understand how the
earth with its components and structures has come into being and how
processes continuously change the face and interior of the earth
Overall, the earth and its processes are extremely complicated, and geology
is therefore often considered a less accurate science than, for
example, physics and chemistry. Many factors influence and influence one
another, and both physical and numerical models are used to understand
Geology is based on the principle of timeliness, which
states that the present is the key to the past. To understand how the evolution
of the earth has taken place, one must study the forces and processes that work
now and that shape the earth, both on the surface and in the depth. Only the
upper part of the Earth's crust is available for direct observation. As for the
deeper layers, reference is made to studies of xenoliths, which are inclusions
of rocks from deeper parts of the crust and from the mantle, from meteorites and
to geophysical methods.
Geology is a highly interdisciplinary science that builds on knowledge
from physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology to explain the earth's
processes, structure and history. Geophysics is also closely related to geology,
with the term geoscience as a common term.
In geology we find many different fields. The oldest
are mineralogy and petrology, which include the description and formation of
minerals and rocks, both magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary. The latter are
often treated separately in sedimentology. Sedimentology is associated with s tratigraphy,
which treats the sedimentary layers and their formation. Similarly, petrology is
closely related to geochemistry, which deals with the Earth's chemistry and the
processes that govern its evolution. Volcanology is a special field dealing with
volcanoes and volcanism.
Furthermore, structural geology and tectonics are related to structures
formed by movements in the earth's crust. These are closely related to plate
tectonics, which explain how the Earth's large outer plates (lithosphere plates)
move and result in mountain ranges, pools and ocean areas. Paleontology is the
study of fossil animals and plants and their evolution. Geomorphology deals with
the formation of the landforms on the Earth's surface over time, and is often
associated with quaternary geology, which deals with the last 2.6 million years
of Earth's history.
The most important raw materials, both for industry and energy, come
from rocks, and the study of the geology of the raw materials is called economic
geology. It includes ore geology, petroleum geology, geotechnics or engineering
geology and soil science. The special feature of the geological resources is
that they are formed very slowly in relation to the rate at which they are
utilized, and are therefore called non-renewable resources.
Speculations on geological issues are already found in several of ancient
philosophers, and in the Renaissance geological descriptions were given
by Leonardo da Vinci, among others. At this time and in the past, geology was
closely related to mining operations.
The German Georg Agricola (1494-1555) was the first to describe ore and mines
in a scientific way.
The word geology, in the present sense, was first used in 1657 by
the Norwegian, Mikkel Pedersøn Escholt, and some of the fundamental principles
were discovered by the Danish Nicolaus Stensen (1638–1687).
From the mid-1700s, geology started in earnest as a natural science. The
leading scientists were the Frenchman Georges-Louis de Buffon, German Abraham
Gottlob Werner, and the two British James Hutton and W. Smith.
From the mid-1800s, among others, the British Charles Lyell and the German Eduard
Suess were the major pioneers.
Geology in Norway
A number of Norwegian researchers have also made significant efforts in
geology, not only in exploring Norway's geology, but also internationally.
The most important are: Jens Esmark, Baltazar M. Keilhau, Theodor
Kjerulf, Hans Reusch, Johan HL Vogt, Waldemar Christopher Brøgger, Victor Moritz
Goldschmidt, Olaf Holtedahl and Thomas Fredrik Weiby Barth.
Scientific associations formed by geologists work at meetings, field trips
and publication of publications. The oldest is The Geological Society of London
The Norwegian Geological Association was founded in 1905 and has since the
foundation year published the Norwegian Geological Journal, later
called the Norwegian Journal of Geology. In addition, there are a
number of associations for amateur geologists, joined by the Norwegian Amateur
Geologists Association, which also publishes the Nordic magazine for popular
The Norwegian Petroleum Association and the national associations for the
mining industry, the rock industry and Pukk and the gravel suppliers also take
up geological topics, organize conferences and publish books with an interest in